With the greatest effects of climate change expected to be seen in the Arctic, we will likely see major changes in the hydrologic cycle. The lakes in the Kangerlussuaq region of Greenland have unique ecosystems and, because of their great number, play an important role in the surface albedo and local climate of the region. These lakes are already changing in size and future expansion or contraction of the lake area may result in significant changes in the local water balance, surface albedo, and ecological processes. In order to predict the future changes of these lakes, such as changes in volume, chemical compositions, or ecological processes, we first need to understand the water balance of these lakes and the hydrologic cycle of this region.
There are two main types of lakes around Kangerlussuaq which have different hydrologic regimes. Most of the lakes receive water from precipitation only and because they are in closed basins, lose water primarily through evaporation. The other type of lake is located near the ice sheet and differs from the others by receiving the primary input of water from melting ice, with precipitation playing a lesser role. These inputs and outputs of water are going to be changing as climate change progresses so it is important to understand the current hydrologic cycle before these major shifts occur.
In order to quantify these components of the hydrologic cycle, our group conducted a series of studies on a number of lakes in the Kangerlussuaq region. One of the primary efforts was to collect water samples to be measured for their isotopic composition as the isotopes of water are powerful tools that are used as tracers to understand hydrologic cycle dynamics. In addition, samples were taken to measure the water chemistry, determined the depth of lakes from our boat, identified if lakes were stratified or not, and we used a YSI multiprobe to measure various properties of the water that included temperature, pH, and conductivity. From these measurements, a series of mass balance relationships will be used to best determine the rates of inputs and outputs to these lakes to define a starting point in order to predict future changes.